OECD-IMHE Funding Systems

OECD-IMHE project "Funding Systems and their Effects on Higher Education Systems"

The international study focuses on the funding systems in the area of higher education in the following countries: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, Portugal and Slovak Republic. Each individual country study was designed and conducted within an overall common framework by a project partner from the respective country. The study addresses and analyses the effects of funding systems on the higher education system and its institutions by using the stakeholders approach. In order to present a comprehensive overview, the study explicitly takes into account the stakeholders diversity and explores the effects of how funding systems are perceived and assessed differently.

The study provides insight into the main features of higher education funding systems, the formal, explicitly stated interrelationships between the funding system and national higher education policies. Furthermore, the intended and unintended effects of funding systems on higher education in general and on the basic core tasks research and teaching are described and discussed. Institutional strategic responses to the respective funding systems are outlined.

The study provides:

  • overview of funding systems in the area of higher education;
  • analysis of interrelationships between funding systems, policy and strategic goals; results of a stakeholders survey concerning the goals and objectives the higher education system should encompass;
  • analysis of the funding systems intended and unintended effects on higher education;
  • analysis of the funding systems influence on institutional strategies, goals and objectives including internal budget allocation modes of higher education institutions;
  • identification of core tasks and an analysis of the effects of funding systems on core tasks;
  • analysis of available objective data on effects of the funding system;
  • analysis of stakeholders viewpoints concerning strengths and weaknesses of funding systems.

Project partners:
Denmark, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Norway, Portugal and Slovak Republic.

Danish project participants:
Associate Professor Evanthia Kalpazidou Schmidt
PhD Student Kaare Aagaard

Funding Systems and their Effects on Higher Education Systems - International Report (Education Working Paper No. 6). OECD-IMHE report, Directorate for Education.

The full documentation of this study, including all country reports is available at the Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) of the OECD: www.oecd.org/edu/imhe

Other publications:
Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2011): University Funding Reforms in the Nordic Countries. In University Reform and Consequences in Finland and Japan (Dobson, I. & Maruyama, F., eds). Anthology. Centre for National University Finance and Management, Tokyo, Japan.

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2010): Nordic Higher Education Systems in the European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area. Education et Societès, vol. 24, nr 1.

Langberg, K. & Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2010): Local Diversity and Identity versus Global Interactions - Changes in the Danish Higher Education system. European Education: Issues and Studies, vol. 42, nr 1.

Frølich, N.; Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. & Rosa, M. J., (2010): Funding systems for Higher Education and their impacts on institutional strategies and academia: a comparative study between Denmark, Norway and Portugal. International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24, nr 1.

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2010): Danish Higher Education Governance and Funding in a Comparative Perspective. International Christian University Publications, vol. 10, Tokyo, Japan.

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2009): Nordic Higher Education Systems in a Comparative Perspective. Journal of Finance and Management in Colleges and Universities, vol. 1, nr 6. Tokyo, Japan.

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. (2008): Higher Education Culture and Changing Framework Conditions. International Journal of Knowledge, Culture & Change Management, vol. 8. ISSN: 1447-9524.

Kalpazidou Schmidt, E. & Langberg, K. (2007-8): Academic autonomy in a rapidly changing higher education framework - Academia on the Procrustean bed? European Education: Issues and Studies, vol. 40, Implication of Competition for the Future of European Higher Education.